Tuesday, November 22, 2011

If-Clause and Wish

If - Clause

Type I

Function :
Probable action/result in the future according to a real condition You'll catch the train if you leave before ten. Form :  

            if / unless/ if....... not + present tense     +          future I: shall/will/can/may/might + verb
                     if - clause                                                          main clause

example :
                If I learn my vocabulary, I'll get a good mark 
                       if - clause                       main clause

             shall / will / can / may / might + verb + present tense          +     if + simple present
                                       main clause                                                                   if - clause

example :
                I'll get a good mark if I learn my vocabulary

 Type II

Function : 
  • Possible action/result according to a less probable condition in the future 

  • We'd have enough money for a new car if you found a good job.
  • Fantasized result or action according to an unreal (untrue) condition in the present 

  • We'd buy a Rolls Royce if we were rich.

 Form :
            if/unless/if.....not past tense ,  +  conditional I : should/could,would/'d/might + verb
                         if-clause                                                       main clause

 example :  If I learnt my vocabulary, I'd get a good mark

or the other way round :  I'd get a good mark if I learnt my vocabulary.

Type III

 Function :
  •  If- clause:       unreal condition: the condition can't be fulfilled any longer, because it should have happened in the past, but didn't.
  • main clause:  the consequence can't take place any more, because the condition couldn't be fulfilled.
         If I had learnt more (but I didn't  learn=unreal condition), I would have got a better mark. 
         (So I didn't get a  better mark= impossible  consequence)

         or the other way round:
         I would have got a better mark 
         (So I didn't get a better mark= impossible consequence) if I had learnt more (but I didn't  learn=unreal

 Form :
            If/unless/if...not past perfect,     +    conditional II: should/could/would/might + have + verb 
            If I had + -ed or 3rd form,                 + -ed or 3rd form
                      if-clause                                                                  main clause

 example : If I had learnt my vocabulary, I would  have got a good mark
                or the other way round :
                I would have got a good mark if I had learnt my vocabulary.


Definition :

Similar to conditional sentences are those that use "wish" to express something isn't true now, or it wasn't true in the past.

Form :
Subject  1+ wish (that) + subject 2 + V2.
Subject  1+ wish (that) + subject 2 + were +NV=Non Verb.

note : 'that' is optionally.
Examples :  
  • I wish that Sani spoke english fluently. ( In fact : Sani doesn't speak english fluently)
  • I wish Jacob were coming to class. (In fact : Jacob isn't coming to class)
  • I wish books were not expensive. ( Books are very expensive now)
  • I wish I had more money.(In fact, I don't have more money)
  • She wishes he would talk to her more often.
  • They wish they hadn't bought that house.
  • Yesterday Tom moved his chair and hurt his back. Now he wishes he hadn't done that.
  • Tony wishes he had a job as a radio announcer.(he doesn't have this job)
  • I wish I knew the answer. (I don't know the answer)

source :

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