if / unless/ if....... not + present tense + future I: shall/will/can/may/might + verb
if - clause main clause
If I learn my vocabulary, I'll get a good mark
if - clause main clause
shall / will / can / may / might + verb + present tense + if + simple present
main clause if - clause
I'll get a good mark if I learn my vocabulary
- Possible action/result according to a less probable condition in the future
We'd have enough money for a new car if you found a good job.
- Fantasized result or action according to an unreal (untrue) condition in the present
We'd buy a Rolls Royce if we were rich.
if/unless/if.....not past tense , + conditional I : should/could,would/'d/might + verb
if-clause main clause
example : If I learnt my vocabulary, I'd get a good mark
or the other way round : I'd get a good mark if I learnt my vocabulary.
- If- clause: unreal condition: the condition can't be fulfilled any longer, because it should have happened in the past, but didn't.
- main clause: the consequence can't take place any more, because the condition couldn't be fulfilled.
(So I didn't get a better mark= impossible consequence)
or the other way round:
I would have got a better mark
(So I didn't get a better mark= impossible consequence) if I had learnt more (but I didn't learn=unreal
If/unless/if...not past perfect, + conditional II: should/could/would/might + have + verb
If I had + -ed or 3rd form, + -ed or 3rd formif-clause main clause
example : If I had learnt my vocabulary, I would have got a good mark
or the other way round :
I would have got a good mark if I had learnt my vocabulary.
Similar to conditional sentences are those that use "wish" to express something isn't true now, or it wasn't true in the past.
Subject 1+ wish (that) + subject 2 + V2.
Subject 1+ wish (that) + subject 2 + were +NV=Non Verb.
note : 'that' is optionally.
- I wish that Sani spoke english fluently. ( In fact : Sani doesn't speak english fluently)
- I wish Jacob were coming to class. (In fact : Jacob isn't coming to class)
- I wish books were not expensive. ( Books are very expensive now)
- I wish I had more money.(In fact, I don't have more money)
- She wishes he would talk to her more often.
- They wish they hadn't bought that house.
- Yesterday Tom moved his chair and hurt his back. Now he wishes he hadn't done that.
- Tony wishes he had a job as a radio announcer.(he doesn't have this job)
- I wish I knew the answer. (I don't know the answer)